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高中英语虚拟语气讲解以及练习


来源:长春大学生家教网 日期:2014-01-11

虚拟语气

英语有两种语气——陈述语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气表示事实上发生的事情或客观存在的情况。虚拟语气表示假定、想象、愿望等非事实观念。

.虚拟语气在条件句中主要有以下几种情况。
(1).表达与现在的事实相反的假设或想象:
   条件从句                  主句
  If + 主语 + 过去式,     主语 + should/would + 动词原形
  If + 主语 + were,      主语 + would/should + 动词原形
  (其中,should用于第一人称,would可用于各个人称。)
  If I had enough money, I should/would buy a camera.
  If I were rich, I would help the poor.
(2).表达与过去事实相反的假设或想象:
    条件从句                      主句
  If + 主语 + had + 过去分词, 主语 + should/would have + 过去分词

If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car.
 (= I didn’t have enough money, so I didn’t buy it.)
  If it had not rained yesterday, we should have gone fishing.
(3)表达与将来事实相反的假设或想象,有三种形式:
  ①条件从句                     主句
  If +主语+ should + 动词原形,   主语 + should/would + 动词原形

(表示可能性极小 “万一”)
   If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go.
  注意:if从句的动词形式不分人称与数,一律用“should+动词原形”
  ②条件从句                     主句
  If +主语 + were to + 动词原形,    主语 + should/would +动词原形
  If I were to go abroad, I would go to America. 倘若我要出国,我就到美国。
  ③条件从句                     主句
  If +主语 +动词过去式,        主语 + should/would +动词原形
  If he went to the party, he would be disappointed.
(4) 在条件状语从句中,常会出现主句所表示的行为所发生的时间与从句表示的行为的时   间不一致,叫做错综时间虚拟条件句,即条件从句与主句所指时间不一致。如从句指过去,而主句却指现在或将来,此时应根据具体的语境,结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作出相应的调整。

  If you had gone to bed early last night, you would not be so sleepy now.
  If I were you, I wouldn’t have gone to the party last night.

(5) 假设情况不用if从句来表示,而是用without, but for, otherwise, or, but等表示一种含蓄条件

表示与现在或将来相反,用“would (should, could, might)+动词原形”;表示与过去相反用“would (should, could, might)+have+过去分词”

I knew my uncle did have no time. Otherwise he would have kept me company to go hiking.

例1:We ______ John's name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury. (2011·江西卷28)

A. will put      B. will have put    C. would put   D. would have put

例2: I ______ through that bitter period without your generous help. (2011·陕西卷22) 

A. couldn't have gone               B. didn't go

C. wouldn't go                          D. hadn't gone

(5)条件从句if的省略:
当从句中有were,过去分词had, 或should时,if经常省略。此时,主语后面的主动词(were, had,should等)被移至句首。
Were I a bird, I would fly to you.
= If I were a bird, I would fly to you,
Should it rain tomorrow, I would not go there.
= If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go there.

例:______ in your position, I would go.

A. If I            B. Were I      C. If was I         D. If I am

用在从句中的虚拟语气 
⒈宾语从句中的应用
(1) wish后的宾语从句:
表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时;
表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用过去完成时;
表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的主观愿望,常用“would (could)+动词原形”。
I wish I knew the answer to the question..
I wished I hadn’t spent so much money.
I wish it would stop raining.
I wish you would come soon.
例:—  Where are the children?
—  I wish they ______ always late. (2011·北京卷28)
     A. weren't                         B. hadn't been 
     C. wouldn't be                     D. wouldn't have been
(2) 在具有愿望、请求、建议、命令等主观意愿的动词(desire, demand, advice, insist, require, suggest, propose, order, recommend, decide …) 后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用(should) +动词原形。值得注意的是,如果宾语从句的动词是否定的,否定词not的位置应在动词之前,而不是动词之后。
I demand that he (should) answer me immediately.
The head nurse insisted that the patient not be move.
【注意】
(1)suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气.
His pale face suggested that he was in poor health.
(2)insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。
He insisted that he did not kill the boy.
2. 主语从句中的应用
It is+形容词/ 名词/ 过去分词+ that引导的主语从句,主语从句中谓语动词常用 “should + 动词原形”。
常用形容词有:necessary, important, essential, imperative, urgent, preferable, vital, advisable等
常用名词有:duty, pity, regret, no wonder, shame等。
常用过去分词有:demanded, suggested, required, requested, ordered, decided等
It is suggested that pupils (should) wear school uniforms. 
It is important that everyone (should) inform themselves of these rules.
It is a pity that he (should) refuse to accept the offer
3.表语从句中的应用
上述动词相应的名词形式作主语+连系动词构成表语从句,要用虚拟语气,即“should + 动词原形”.常用名词形式有:advice, decision, demand, proposal, request, order, suggestion等。
His suggestion was that the meeting (should) be put off.
其他形式的虚拟语气 
1. 在It's (high/about) time “该干某事了” 之后的定语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式.
It is high time that you went to school.
2. 虚拟语气在as if / as though 引导的方式状语从句中的应用(谓语动词形式与wish后的宾语从句基本相同)
表示与现在事实相反,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时;
表示与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;
表示将来的可能性不大,用“would (could)+动词原形”
He felt as if he were responsible for what had happened.
He treats me as if I were a stranger.
Even if she had been ill, she would have gone to her office.
3.if only 引起的感叹句中需用虚拟语气
表示与现在或未来事情相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去式 或 would/should+动词原形
表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去完成式。
Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I had followed your advice. 
If only I had not been busy last week.
4. would (had)rather , would sooner也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。
表示与现在或未来事情相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去式.
表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去完成式.
I would rather he went right now. 
 

补充:“情态动词+have done”的用法

must have done表示对过去事情的肯定推测。

can't / couldn't have done表示对过去所发生的事情所做的否定推测。

may have done表示过去所发生的事情作可能性推测。

might / could have done表示对过去所发生的事情作可能性推测,或者表示本来可以做而事实上未做的事情。

should / ought to have done表示本应该做的事情而事实上未做,含有对对方的责备。

needn't have done表示做了本不应该做的事情。

例1:They ______ have arrived at lunchtime but their flight was delayed. (2011·新课标卷32)

        A. will                                     B. can

       C. must                                     D. should

例2:— I left my handbag on the train, but luckily someone gave it to a railway official.

— How unbelievable to get it back! I mean, someone ______ it. (2011·江苏卷34)

      A. will have stolen                     B. might have stolen

      C. should have stolen                 D. must have stolen

 

语法专项练习:
  1. But for the help of John, he _____ last night.
    A. should have drowned      B. would have drowned
    C. was drowned          D. may have drowned
  2. If it _____ fine tomorrow, we would go for a swim in the sea.
    A. would be      B. should be   C. is         D. was to
  3. He suffered a sudden heart attack and her wife found him dead when she got home from work. But      _____.
    A. if his wife came back earlier, he might be saved
    B. if his wife had come back earlier, he might be saved
    C. if his wife came back earlier, he might have been saved
    D. if his wife had come back earlier, he might have been saved
  4. I would rather she _____ tomorrow than by plane.
    A. travel on train      B. traveled by train
    C. travels by train     D. travelling by the train
  5. How old would you _____ if you _____ in 1900?
    A. be; had been born         B. be; would be born
    C. have been; would be born     D. have been; were
  6. _____ the sun, nothing on earth could live.
    A. Were it not to         B. If it were not to
    C. If it had not been for     D. If it were not for
  7. If he _____, give him the message.
    A. were coming  B. would come   C. should come  D. were come
  8. Were I to move to a foreign country, I _____ away all my furniture in my house here.
    A. would give      B. shall give
    C. gave         D. will give
  9. I would go to the concert but I _____ no time.
    A. had   B. had had      C. have  D. has
  10. —Would you have told him the answer?
    —Yes, I would have, but I _____ so busy then.
    A. had been  B. were    C. was    D. am
  11. —Why didn’t you buy it?
    —I _____ but I didn’t have the money.
    A. would       B. would have
    C. had had      D. had bought
  12. —You should have finished it sooner.
    —I know but I _____ the time.
    A. don’t have  B. won’t have  C. didn’t have D. had not
  13. _____ water, we could not live a day in the desert.
    A. Without   B. No   C. Having no D. But not for
  14. If you _____ the doctor’s advice, you would have recovered already.
    A. followed  B. would followed    C. will follow D. had followed
  15. If he had not lost the money, he _____ the piano last week.
    A. could have bought      B. had bought
    C. would buy          D. have bought
  答案与解析: 
  1. 选B。but for表示“如果不是……的话”,与虚拟语气搭配使用。
  2. 选B。表示与将来事实相反的虚拟语气,从句用should do或者were to do.
  3. 选D。表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。
  4. 选B。would rather后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气,形式是:would rather sb. did/had done.
  5. 选A。从句与过去事实相反,而主句与现在事实相反。
  6. 选D。表示与现在事实相反的虚拟语气,意思是“如果不是有太阳的话”。
  7. 选C。表示与将来事实相反的虚拟语气,从句用should do.
  8. 选A。表示与将来事实相反的虚拟语气,主句用would/should do.
  9. 选C。but后面的分句表示事实情况,不用虚拟语气。
  10. 选C。but后面的分句表示过去的事实情况,因此用过去时。
  11. 选B。虚拟语气和事实情况混合的用法,第一个分句是虚拟,而but后面是事实情况。
  12. 选C。but后面的分句表示过去的事实情况,因此用过去时。
  13. 选A。without经常代替虚拟的从句,表示假设。
  14. 选D。表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,从句用过去完成时。

           15. 选A。could have done表示“本来可以做某事”。

 

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